Gar"net (?), n. [OE. gernet,
grenat, OF. grenet,grenat, F. grenat, LL.
granatus, fr. L. granatum pomegranate, granatus
having many grains or seeds, fr. granum grain, seed. So called
from its resemblance in color and shape to the grains or seeds of the
pomegranate. See Grain, and cf. Grenade,
Pomegranate.] (Min.) A mineral having many
varieties differing in color and in their constituents, but with the
same crystallization (isometric), and conforming to the same general
chemical formula. The commonest color is red, the luster is vitreous,
and the hardness greater than that of quartz. The dodecahedron and
trapezohedron are the common forms.
☞ There are also white, green, yellow, brown, and black
varieties. The garnet is a silicate, the bases being aluminia lime
(grossularite, essonite, or cinnamon stone), or
aluminia magnesia (pyrope), or aluminia iron
(almandine), or aluminia manganese (spessartite), or
iron lime (common garnet, melanite,
allochroite), or chromium lime (ouvarovite, color
emerald green). The transparent red varieties are used as gems. The
garnet was, in part, the carbuncle of the ancients. Garnet is a very
common mineral in gneiss and mica slate.
Garnet berry (Bot.), the red currant;
-- so called from its transparent red color. -- Garnet
brown (Chem.), an artificial dyestuff, produced
as an explosive brown crystalline substance with a green or golden
luster. It consists of the potassium salt of a complex cyanogen
derivative of picric acid.
Gar"net, n. [Etymol. unknown.]
(Naut.) A tackle for hoisting cargo in or out.
Clew garnet. See under Clew.